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1969 // , . ().

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1970 - // ... :

1971 - ( ). .

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1971 // . . V . 6-9 1971 . . .

1971 Ҟ DUMU . GAL luME-E-DI // . 70- .. . 1.

1972 әәә ҭ ҭ - ҭ // , 6.

...

[ :] Otten und Soucek V.Ein althethitisches Ritual fur das Komgspaar (StBoT. H 8) Wiesbaden, 1969 // , 3.

//

Some Notes on the Typological Affinity Between Hattian and North-West Caucasian (Abkhazo-Adygian) Languages// International Tagung der Keilschriftforscher der sozialistischen Lander, Budapest, 23-25. April 1974. Zusammenfassung der Vortrage (Assyrtologica 1).

// . 1. 75- ... : .

[ :] Haas, V.Der Kult von Nerik. CStudia Pohl 4), Roma, 1971// , 1. ( . - ( ), , 1971, 312 .) // , 1976, 6 ( ).

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[ ] [ . (, 1976)] // , 4 .

- // . III : , , . (EZEN) // VIII , .. (2.II 1889- 15.IX.1965). , 6-9 1979 . . .

// . 4.

. : . // , 1.

On the structure and functions of Hittite Festivals // Gesellschaft und Kultur im alten Vorderasien. f'Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Aten Orients, 15) Berlin - // .. (). , , . .

, . // . . (The Hittites and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor. 1975). . . . . .. : .

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. VII. .

// . : .

. . .

The Birth of the Hittite King and the New Year (Note on the Hassumas Festival) // Oikumene, N 5

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// ... . . .. ..- . . .

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, - // III . .. - . (, 1988 .).

( ) // : . LXXX : .

168 // SULMU: Papers on the Ancient Near East Presented at International Conference of Socialist Congress (Prague. Sept. 30 Oct. 3, 1986). Pr.

// . . .- : .

ҭҷ // , 4

ҭ // , 3.

// , 4 .

On the Structure and the Functions of Hittite Festivals // Horst Klengel and Werner Sundermann (eds.). Egypten, Vorderasien, Turfan: Probleme der Edition und Bearbei- tung altorientalischer Handschriften: Tagung in Berlin, Mai 1987 (Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients, 23), Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

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Eski^ag'da Anadolu Ayinleri Ve Mitleri. SSCB Bilim- ler Akademisi Dogubilim Ara$tirmalan Enstitusu. Ankara. [ .. ].

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.., .. (. .:) ... . ., 1982 // , 2, 1983, . 162-166.

Haase, R. [Review of:] V.G.Ardzinba. Ritualy i mify Drevnej Anatoli// Aula Orientalis, Barcelona, No. 2, 1984, p. 158-159.

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Summary

Vladislav Grigor'evich Ardzinba is one of the most known politicians of Abkhazia and founder of contemporary Abkhazian state, its recognized leader. His activities just in this capacity have made the most profound impact on the ongoing process of formation of the newr Abkhazian nation.

However, before V.G.Ardzinba has started to make his brilliant political career, he was already a well-known scholar, one of the prominent experts on the history', cultural and religious life of the ancient Hittites people who created one of most developed world civilizations which had a dramatic influence on subsequent civilizations of the Ancient Orient and Southern Europe. Moreover, V.G.Ardzinba was also one of the very' few specialists on the language and culture of the Hattians. ancient people of the Asia Minor which, in their turn, had a profound influence on the rise of civilization of Hittites themselves as Indo-Europeans. Finally, the scholar wras also a well-known expert on the history and cultures of the Caucasus, being an author of several remarkable works on the Caucasian folklore and traditional religion.

The first volume contains two important works of V G Ardzinba; one is of a generalizing nature Civilizations of the Ancient Asia Minor (1989); another is a monograph entitled Rituals and Myths of Ancient Anatolia (1982).

If we turn to the works of V.G Ardzinba devoted to Hittites, the first of them was the article of 1969 entitled On the origins of some elements of Hittite social organization. This work was followed by the other article On the question of the Hittite king and queen mother44 (appeared in Sukhumi in 1970). These first works of the then young orientalist demonstrated the depth of his analysis, erudition and his impressive knowledge of relevant international sources.

hi 1971 V.G.Ardzinba defended his Ph.D. thesis Hattian origins of the social organization of the ancient Hittite society, supervised by Vvach. Vs. Ivanov. That fundamental work deals in great detail with the ritual functions of the Hittite tsar and queen-tawananna; it also puts forward a hypothesis related to the dual organization of the power structures in the ancient Hittite society. The author has demonstrated that archaic rituals and religious holiday s of the Hittites testify to dualistic opposition of the king and queen-tawananna which are associated, respectively, with the God of the Thunderstorm and Goddess of the Sun (Vurusemu)

The author presented a detailed description of various aspects of the linkage of the Hittite God of the Thunderstorm with the royal obligations touching upon the soils fertility and welfare of the Hittite society'. He also showed that God of the Thunderstorm secured implementation, by the king, of the latters military functions.

Members of the court circle with titles of the Hattian origin plyed an important role among the officials of the Hittite court. Analysis, by the author, of the activities of these officials made it possible to throw some light on the role of Hattians within the structure of titles and functions of the officials of the Hittite court All the materials are analyzed through comparison with typologically similar rituals of the other archaic cultures (those of Africa in particular). Contribution of V.G.Ardzinba to the study of formation of social structure of the ancient Hittite soci

ety might give important clues for our understanding of how state and society of the Ancient Orient functioned and progressed. The second volume of this collection contains an abstract of the thesis described above.

Monograph of V.G.Ardzinba Rituals and Myths of Ancient Anatolia which appeared in Moscow in 1982 turned out to be a classical work on the Hittite culture and mythology, a true handbook for specialists on the Hittites.

This monograph analyses some of the most important Hittite royal festivals (AN TAH.SUM, nuntariyasha, w/purulliya, KI.LAM, hassumas), that is, the rites performed under the guidance and with direct participation of the king and the queen (and often the prince). Examining the royal holidays, the author uses the data of the ritual sacrifices (SISKUR), injunctions (ishiul contract), as well as some typological correlations.

The first chapter deals with the investigation of itineraries of the king and the queen and the rites performed by the regal couple during the royal progress. The study is based on wrell- known publications concerning the festivals AN.TAH.SUM and nuntariyasha and descriptions of these rites published in the autographies (CTH N 604-625; 626, CTH 1. Suppl.).

These itineraries bring forth a supposition that the tours of the royal couple to different towns could represent the touring of the whole territory' of the Hittite kingdom. Evidently, the tours could be also performed symbolically. The touring of the territory by the royal couple, as well as the tours of the sacred fleece are compared with the going round (weh-, irhai-/arhat-) the temples, ehalentuwa and ritual places at the holidays of AN TAH SUM and nuntariyasha, rites of hassumas, KI.LAM, (h)isuwra and, in their turn, with universal ceremonies of the going round or circling that occur in various cultural traditions. On the whole, performing his royal progress over the country', modelling the Universe and identified with the ruler's body, the king evidently reprodused the rotation of cosmic powers and the birth of a new season (alteration of seasons), thus functioning for the Sun

Among other common traits of AN.TAH.SUM and nuntariyasha. the author analyses, in particular, the opening (unsealing) of the pythoses (dugharsiyalli-) in spring during AN.TAH.SUM (and other spring holidays) and their filling up in autumn. It is supposed that these rites symbolized the opening (the birth) of the season of spring and rain, as well as its closing (that is, the coming of probable hunger and dearth of fodder).

The rite w/purulliya, as well as the myth connected with it, were regarded as a means to protect the country' The ensuring of this protection by the king with the help of the rite apparently reproduced the rebirth both of the country' and the king, which was the necessary condition of fertility and prosperity of the community.

In particular a description of the rite KI.LAM draws attention to offerings by people from different Hittite towns (these offerings are described, for example, in MELKIT records) as well as to reciprocal gifts consisting of food, cloth and garments These offerings and reciprocal gifts are compared with the exchange between the king and his subjects, described in a number of other Hittite ritual and law texts The author draws a conclusion about the similarity' of the practice described in Hittite texts and the custom of gift exchanges prevalent among the natives of America, Australia and Oceania, the custom, main features of which were traced among the Scandinavians of the early mediaeval period, and the Slavs

The use of some sacred animals' figurines in the rite KI LAM (as well as the panther-like dances) together with the data of other Hittite texts are regarded as evidence of the initially to- temistic sources of this rite On the whole, the rite KI LAM is characterized as spring festival of the exchange between the king and his subjects, aimed at the growth of fertility'

hi a section dealing with the rite hassumas (CTH N 633), the author compares its characteristic features such as the grinding and milling of com, the rite performed by the team of bulls, etc., with the Hittite and the other typologically similar rites. He ar-

rives at the conclusion about the spring character of the holiday hassumas and draws attention to a specific role played by the number twelve in the rite (twelve gods, twelve KlrnesKAR.KID. twelve priests, twelve lume,APIN.LAL), and the role of the prince as the leader of the rite. The twelve gods are used here to determine the number of the parts of the whole (all the gods), as a symbol of the twelve months of the year. The functions of the prince in hassumas and other Hittite rites are compared with those of the king's son (substituting his father) in the ancient Indian rite rajasiiya (birth of the king), representing a striking typological analogy of hassumas. The role of the prince as leader of hassumas is explained by the fact that in this rite he functions as king, the king, so to speak, reborns in his son. The author concludes that hassumas is most closely connected with rites of consecration and can be interpreted as the festival of rebirth (or opening) of the king, the New Year and cosmos.

In the second chapter the author makes an attempt to determine the structure (that is, the most general fixed elements) of the royal festival, hi this connection he makes a supposition that the opening of ehalentuwa at dawn and the appearance of the king imitated the opening (or birth) of the day and the appearance of the Sun (= king). The arraying of the ruler in the garment of the deity' is explained by the general belief that the king became a god not only after his death, but performed the functions of deity during his lifetime, particularly in the rite.

It is supposed, that the central ceremony of the royal festival was constituted by the great assembly (salli asessar). That was the name for the rite commencing with the seating of the king (or the royal couple) on the ritual throne. The author describes the characteristic actions connected with salli asessar. Main actions, related to the great assembly, offerings to the king and reciprocal gifts described in a number of texts, display certain similarity with elements of guest reception custom. This similarity allows to interpret the great assembly as a rite of

reception of the guest king. The guest-king simultaneously functioned as the host, offering reception to gods and other participants of the assembly. Such an interpretation of the great assembly suggests that the tours of the Hittite king over his kingdom's territories during AN TAH.SUM and nuntariyasha, combined with the duty of organization of the rite, could have some common sources with the ruler's (or king's) progress through his country', with participation in the feasts (aimed at collecting food and other tributes), characteristic for mediaeval societies.

hi connection with the principal element of the great assembly the feast the author consideres the actions of contest or rivalry performed for the purpose of stimulation and regeneration of cosmic powers during the most crucial periods in the life of an individual or the whole community, mainly in spring and autumn. This chapter also analyses a number of Hittite myths It is supposed that the myth about a vanished deity wras previously included into the royal spring rite. This opinion is based, in particular, on the comparison of the function of the bee in the Hittite myths and in Russian spring children songs (vesnianki). In tins tradition (as well as in many others), the bee is closely connected with the beginning of spring. Hunger and dearth of fodder, on the one hand, and the return of fertility' connected with rebirth of the deity', on the other, characteristic for the Hittite myths, should have the same meaning as image of winter and spring, reflecting the same phenomena in Russian vesniankas (cf. the opposition of the season of cold, winter, darkness and barrenness, and the season of warmth, light and harvest).

The author examines in detail the myth about the fight of the Storm-god with the Serpent (illuyanka-), as well as the dialogue between the king and the Throne, connected with the rite of erecting the new palace (KUB XXIX 1). The inner structure of these narratives is compared with the structure of other similar Hittite texts which reflect Hittite cosmological notions concerning the triple structure of the Universe These cosmological no

tions are in their turn connected with the triple structure of the world tree, the significant elements of which are represented by slslahhumuzzi- (the greenery or the green crown), istama peda (the middle part) and gl'kapanu- (the bottom, possibly the roots of the tree) in KUB 43, 62, III, 2-7. Three parts of the vertical cosmos structure and the world tree respectively correspond to the bird (the eagle), the bee and the snake (or the bearded snakes). The world pattern identical to cosmos can also be traced in the construction of the Hittite palace comprising the three parts (KUB XXIX 1, III, 13-24): "'massa gliiskisana- (possibly connected with the Hittite iskisa- spine, bearing a meaning of something like the framework) samanu- foundation, and in the triple structure of the king's body ( XVII, 22, III, 10-12): 8'lahhumuzzi- green (crown) tuegga body S'ssurku root.

The opposition of the Hittite king and the middle world to the Throne and the neither world, as well as the related motives in the narrative about the king and the Throne are compared with the principal pattern of the plot and the most characteristic episodes of Hittite and reconstructed Indo-European myths about the fight of the Storm god with the Serpent.

The third chapter analyses the functions of the Hittite king, queen and their councillors in the rite. The author investigates correlation of the king with the Storm god in the function of the country's defender (Hittite pahs-, pahhas-). Some aspects of this function are reflected in particular by the attributes, relating to both the Storm god and the king. The author makes a supposition in favour of the identity of the Storm god's arms s'skalmi-, S'skalmisana- (bludgeon, or club) and the king's attribute S'skalmu-s, which possibly play ed the role of the phallic symbol. The king probably used this attribute to evoke rain.

The chapter studies the king's relation to water (rain or brook), the sacred animals the lion (or the panther), and the Storm god These rites are regarded as evidence, that the king and the queen represented the symbols of fertility'. The assumption is strengthened by the data of the king's substitution rites, and the rite KUB

XXIX 1. In the rite KUB XXIX 1 the rebirth)) of the king was represented by the following functionally equivalent actions: the victory of the king over the Throne, where the king performed the functions of the Storm god, while the Throne as his adversary the Serpent, the instalment of the hearth (the altar) KUB XXIX 1, III, 37-40), planting of the vine or the evergreen tree eya and so on (KUB XXIX 1, IV, 13-25), and erecting of a new palace, which judging by its vertical structure symbolized the creation of cosmos. The rebirth of the king was also presented by making of his statue (KUB XXIX 1, II, 52-54), which was identified with his body This rite is compared with typologically similar rites, in which erection of the statue was completed by inserting the eyeballs, symbolizing the birth that of the statue, the god identified with it, the human being, and cosmos. In connection with the role of the king as a symbol of fertility, the author investigates the injunctions, determining the functions of the king himself, his councillors, priests and other participants of the rite.

Further he analyses the functions of the royal councillors in the rite and singles out the dual classificational characteristics that are consciously significant for the rites and myths., from the point of view of the members of the communities, using these sign systems [Ivanov V.V., Toporov V.N. Issledovaniya v oblasti slavianskikh drevnostei. Moscow, 1974, p. 259]. The chapter establishes correlation between the notions the right, auspicious (fortunate), the male)), and the left)), inauspicious (unfortunate))), the female. According to structure of the rite, the notions the king, the Storm god, etc., are correlated with the right, while the queen, the Sungoddess of the town Arinna, etc. respectively, with the left)).

The councillors of the royal couple (among them DUMU.MES E.GAL, LUME gliBANUR,lume4valhiyas, birtieiABUBITI etc.) also corresponded to the general opposition of the king and the queen. The above-mentioned fact probably accounts for the opposition of the Hittite courtiers on the principle right lefts, external internal which goes back to basic ritual opposition, profane sacred.

The correlation of the king with the profane military (right, external) function, and the queen, with the sacred (left, internal) one, could be explained by the assumption of V V Ivanov, according to which, the Hittite society preserved the archaic opposition between the king and the queen Ta- wananna, functioning as the element of the dual power system. The traces of this survival are to be found, in particular, in the conflicts between Hattusili I and Tawananna, as well as between Mursili II and Tawananna in the New Hittite Kingdom In this connection the author makes use of the data concerning the status and functions of the rulers and their female counterparts in some of the cities-states of the Asia Minor, as well as of some typological parallels, corresponding to the Hittite royal pair the king and the queen Tawananna.

The Conclusion presents some general observations concerning the functions of the Hittite royal festivals.

The third volume of the collection is devoted those works of V.G.Ardzinba which toucj upon various aspects of history and culture of the peoples of Caucasus. However, as the reader may realize, not only these topics were the primary' interest of the scholar. V.G.Ardzinba was also a recognized expert on linguistics, and this made it possible for the scholar to conduct quite successfully, using his knowledge of the old folk legends, a comparative analysis of ancient languages of the Asia Minor and those of modem Caucasian peoples (see, e.g., the articles Some similar structural features of Hattian and Northwest Caucasian languages and Some notes on the typological affinity between Hattian and North-West Caucasian (Abkhazo- Adygian) languages.

Some works of V.G.Ardzinba are devoted to the history of the Abkhazian people and some contemporary' issues of Abkhazia his native land (Stages of ethnic and political history' of Abkhazia, On the study of the ancient history' of Abkhazia and some other publications)

As a kind of conclusion, the third volume contains a paper of one of the followers of V.G. Ardzinba, a well-known linguist

academician Vyacheslav Chirikba, who has made an attempt to provide a general evaluation of contribution of V.G.Ardzinba to the international scholarship.

All the papers of the three-volume edition are supplied by the information about the time and place of their first appearance, every volume contains Index of Names and Geographical Index.

' .., 1913 . (. [57]). -

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